Britain and France were surprised at having to convince the US of the need to intervene in Libya in 2011. The French intervention in Mali in 2013 confirmed the picture; Washington will support European action, but only if and when Europe takes the initiative. Just as the focus of American strategy is shifting to Asia and the Pacific, vital interests in the European neighbourhood require resolute action. Automy is being forced upon Europe, but it is an automy constrained by a lack of means as, following the financial crisis, defence budgets across the EU member states are slashed. The ramifications of the Arab Spring and the crisis in Ukraine pose challenges of an ermous scale for the EU and its members. Peace Without Money, War Without Americans is the double challenge that European strategy-makers face. What can be expected from strategy at a European level? Can Europe cope?
Prof. Dr. Sven Biscop is the director of the Europe in the World programme at the Egmont - Royal Institute for International Relations in Brussels, which he joined in 2002. Sven teaches at Ghent University and at the College of Europe in Bruges. As a member of the Executive Academic Board of the European Security and Defence College (ESDC), he regularly lectures in its courses, as well as in various European staff colleges, and at the People's University in Beijing, where he is a Senior Research Associate of the Centre for European Studies. Sven chairs the jury of the biennial European Defence Agency - Egmont PhD Prize in European Defence, Security & Strategy.