This comprehensive study of the Proto-Elamite language (ca. 3000 B.C.) is based on a small archive recovered from the site of Tepe Yahya in southeastern Iran. The authors, two of the leading specialists on the most ancient written texts of the Near East, illuminate the structure of the texts, the numerical sign systems used, and the relation of Proto-Elamite to other protocuneiform writing systems. A computer-generated sign list compares the written archive from Tepe Yahya with those of other archaeological sites from which Proto-Elamite texts have been recovered. The volume offers a new understanding of the language and culture of the Proto-Elamites as well as important insights into the ecomic structure of the earliest literate civilizations. With a new preface by the authors.