The majority of the chapters in this volume represent a series of lectures. that were given at a workshop on quantum transport in ultrasmall electron devices, held at San Miniato, Italy, in March 1987. These have, of course, been extended and updated during the period that has elapsed since the workshop was held, and have been supplemented with additional chapters devoted to the tunneling process in semiconductor quantum-well structures. The aim of this work is to review and present the current understanding in nequilibrium quantum transport appropriate to semiconductors. Gen- erally, the field of interest can be categorized as that appropriate to inhomogeneous transport in strong applied fields. These fields are most likely to be strongly varying in both space and time. Most of the literature on quantum transport in semiconductors (or in metallic systems, for that matter) is restricted to the equilibrium approach, in which spectral densities are maintained as semiclassical energy- conserving delta functions, or perhaps incorporating some form of collision broadening through a Lorentzian shape, and the distribution functions are kept in the equilibrium Fermi-Dirac form. The most familiar field of nequilibrium transport, at least for the semiconductor world, is that of hot carriers in semiconductors.