One philosopher identified and defined five types of justice: interpersonal justice, commutative justice, distributive justice, communal justice, and social justice. Moving from the end of slavery to the present, this book discusses how and why African Americans have received less than equal justice in these five areas. This thesis is laid out in chapters discussing the history of race and what some professionals currently call modern racism, higher education, juvenile justice, law enforcement, the military, ecomics, the reparations for slavery issue, and employment discrimination. Arguments presented include the differential treatments in the law based on gender and race, the false impression about the affirmative action benefits that African Americans allegedly receive in higher education, and the issue of reparations.
Rudolph Alexander, Jr., is professor of social work at Ohio State University and is the director of the BSSW program.