Contrary to common belief, infectious diseases are t as well under control as we would like. We are w at a crossroads regarding the impact of the environment on infectious diseases. Renewed interest in biological weapons and the emergence of new pathogens, coupled with a better understanding of the impact of infectious agents on other conventional diseases, has led us to realise that we can longer remain complacent about the impact of infectious agents on human, animal and crop health. The present book first discusses current and emerging military and civilian policies on the environment. In addition, the impact of environmental biology on the future of space exploration is discussed, especially in reference to the Mars mission. There follows a discussion of the state of bacteria in the environment, with a presentation of current and emerging techniques of microbial investigation. Finally, two case studies are presented on the impact of these techniques on both political and environmental problems.