This ambitious and imaginative work interprets criminal justice history by relating it to intellectual and cultural history. Starting from the assumption that policies and statutes originate in a society's values and rms, the author skilfully and persuasively demonstrates how changes in criminal law and penal practice were related to the changing values of early, mid, and late Victorian and Edwardian society. Wiener traces changes in the criminal justice system by examining the treatment of offenders. During the Victorian period the system became more punitive and was then reformed in line with welfarist thinking. Wiener's wide-ranging discussion of issues, most tably of free will versus determinism, sheds light on a broad range of Victorian history, beyond crime and punishment.