This thesis examines the ideological justification and conduct of the Pequot War (1636-1637) in Southern New England. It will address as a central issue the role religion played for the English in shaping their response to the challenges of colonization and resistance from indigeus tribes. The first chapter will serve as an introduction to the topic. Chapter's two and three will describe the events prior to and including the conflict in detail. Chapter four will discuss the religious underpinning of Puritan thought and policy. Chapter five will examine the military factors that made the destruction of the Pequot both possible and all but inevitable. Chapter six will conclude the examination and highlight the continued relevance of religion as a shaping force for policy and war.