The techlogical progress is closely related to the developments of various materials and tools made of those materials. Even the different ages have been defined in relation to the materials used. Some of the major attributes of the present-day age (i.e., the electronic materials' age) are such common tools as computers and fiber-optic telecommunication systems, in which semiconductor materials provide vital components for various mic- electronic and optoelectronic devices in applications such as computing, memory storage, and communication. The field of semiconductors encompasses a variety of disciplines. This book is t intended to provide a comprehensive description of a wide range of semiconductor properties or of a continually increasing number of the semiconductor device applications. Rather, the main purpose of this book is to provide an introductory perspective on the basic principles of semiconductor materials and their applications that are described in a relatively concise format in a single volume. Thus, this book should especially be suitable as an introductory text for a single course on semiconductor materials that may be taken by both undergraduate and graduate engineering students. This book should also be useful, as a concise reference on semiconductor materials, for researchers working in a wide variety of fields in physical and engineering sciences.