This book is an updated reference for one of the most exciting field of biomedical researches- Stem Cell Research and its therapeutic applications. Stem cell research holds great promise for the treatment of many human diseases that currently lack effective therapies. The set of chapters in this book provide insights into both basic stem cell biology and clinical applications of stem cell-based cell replacement therapies for a variety of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and li ver degeneration. It also covers vel techlogies for the culture and differentiation of both human embryonic stem cells and adult tissue stem cells. This book summarizes our current state of kwledge in stem cell research and integrates basic stem cell biology with regenerative medicine in an overall context. It is an essential reference for students, postdoctoral fellows, academic and industrial scientists, and clinicians. v Ackwledgements The editors would like to thank Ms. Jill Brantley, Rose Chavarin, Alina Haas, and Emily Sun for their administrative assistance and proof-reading of this book. We would also like to thank all the authors for their contributions. vii The editors wish to dedicate this book to our mentors Ron Evans, Fred Gage, and, in memory of Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Contents Preface ...v Ackwledgements ...vii Contributors ...xi 1 Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Development In Vivo and Derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro for Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration ...1 Dennis O. Clegg, David Buchholz, Sherry Hikita, Teisha Rowland, Qirui Hu, and Lincoln V.