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Japan was the first major n-western nation to take on board the Western techlogical and organizational advances of the century after the fist industrial revolution. It subsequently proved fully able to exploit and contribute to the broad, sustained techlogical advances that began in the twentieth century, as science became harnessed to techlogy. Japan's ecomic development remains a model for many techlogically less advanced countries which have t yet mastered modern techlogy to organizational forms; and a kwledge of Japanese techlogical and ecomic history can contribute importantly to our understanding of ecomic growth in the modern era. This book studies the industrial development of Japan since the mid-nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on how the various industries built techlogical capabilities. The Japanese were extraordinarily creative in seraching out and learning to use modern techlogies, and the authors investigate the emergence of entrepreneurs who began new and risky businesses, how the business organizations evolved to cope with changing techlogical conditions, and how the managers, engineers and workers acquired organizational and techlogical skills through techlogy importation, learning-by-doing, and their own R&D activities. The book investigates the interaction between private entrepreneural activities and public policy, through a general examination of ecomic and industrial development, a study of the evolution of management systems, and six industrial case studies: textiles, iron and steel, electrical and communications equipment, automobiles, shipbuilding and aircraft, and pharmaceuticals. the authors show how the Japanese government has played an important supportive role in the continuing invation, without being a substitute for aggressive business enterprise constantly venturing into unfamiliar terrains.