Child/adolescent development and behavior have been a traditional concern of prima- ry health care providers. However, it was t until the mid-1960s that attempts were made to consolidate developmental-behavioral issues into an identifiably distinct fund of medi- cal kwledge. During the ensuing two decades, developmental-behavioral pediatrics was recognized as a clinical and research subspecialty, within the framework of compre- hensive health care for children. The influence of public advocacy groups, topic-dedicated journals, national professional specialty societies, subject-related continuing education programs, and federal legislation (PL94-142) has served to crystallize developmen- tal-behavioral pediatrics as a specialized field of study. As a consequence, during the past ten years significant modifications have restructured medical student and pediatric resi- dent education, providing an emphasis on developmental-behavioral issues. The focus on neurodevelopmental, educational, and psychosocial issues reflects changing priorities in traditional health care for children. The postgraduate training of pediatric fellows, in two- and three-year training programs, was initiated to accommodate professional manpower needs in both academic and practice settings. Many of the problems in childhood development and behavior frequently span the traditional areas of child neurology, child psychiatry, and general pediatrics. As a result there has been some confusion in demarcating professional responsibilities in diagsis and management, as well as poorly defined termilogy and classification schemas. With the birth of developmental pediatrics as a pediatric specialty, a more cohesive fund of kwledge has been accumulated and more meaningful strategies have been designed for prevention, diagsis, and management.