Is humankind on a fast track to self-destruction? Can society develop ways to live in concert with the environment? Are our environmental problems as grave as they seem? The included essays address these issues and much more. International scientists offer empirical case studies of prehistoric human-ecosystem relationships--some of short-term exploitation, others of long-term sustainability--offering lessons for today. Charles L. Redman introduces the trend to re-examine the environmental impacts of prehistoric peoples and the contexts of contemporary decision-making about natural resources.