There is question which country has made the greatest strides in developing its airpower capability. Over the last two decades, China's air force, the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF), has transformed itself from a large, poorly-trained force operating aircraft based on 1950s Soviet designs to a leaner and meaner force flying advanced Russian and indigeusly produced fourth-generation fighters. This remarkable transformation is still a work in progress, but China has made up a lot of ground in a short time. The ever-accelerating transformation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the years since the era of Mao Zedong, particularly in its ecomic and military growth, has been thing short of remarkable. Developments over the last quarter-century-effectively since the tragedy of Tiananmen Square and the collapse of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact alliance-have been more so still. The relationship of this increasingly robust and growing power to the established global community is a complex one, and thornier aspect of that relationship can be found than the uneasy interplay among the PRC, Taiwan, and the countries that deal with both. In late October 2010, a distinguished international group of experts on airpower, military affairs, and the PRC-Taiwan relationship gathered in Taipei to examine the present state and future prospects of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). The conference was the latest in a series of international conferences on the affairs of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) cosponsored by the Chinese Council of Advanced Policy Studies (CAPS), the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP), the U.S. National Defense University (NDU), and the RAND Corporation. Over 3 days, speakers presented 14 papers on aspects of airpower, the PLAAF, and the implications for Taiwan, and panels discussed and debated the presentations, taking questions and comments from an audience of 115 registered attendees, with many others dropping by. This book is a compilation of the edited papers, reflecting comments and additions stimulated by the dialogue and discussion at the conference to examine present state and future prospects of the People's Liberation Air Force (PLAAF).