This book focuses on the study of the environment for the survival and development of Chinese private enterprises. It analyzes the historical development and current overall development of private enterprises in China, their number, size structure, contribution to GDP, employment and tax revenue, and size of investment. It summarizes the laws and regulations relating to the development of private enterprises. It assesses their survival environment in comparison with SOEs' and from the perspective of entrepreneurs. The book also addresses the problems with the protection of property rights of private enterprises, their market entry, their capital mobility and their own management. It concludes with the analysis of the main factors hindering the development of private enterprises in China and some policy recommendations for improving the environment for their survival and development.