The Essential Difference shows that, on average, male and female minds are of a slightly different character. Men tend to be better at analysing systems (better systemisers), while women tend to be better at reading the emotions of other people (better empathisers).
Simon Baron-Cohen is Professor at Cambridge University in the fields of psychology and psychiatry, and the co-director of the Autism Research Centre there. He has carried out research into both autism and sex differences, over a twenty-year career. He is the author of MINDBLINDNESS.