This study applies the insights of archaeology to some of the most fundamental and contentious issues in human evolution. Since the 1980s a modular concept of the mind has been put forward which likens the mind to a Swiss Army knife with its collection of specialist blades and tools - the mind is seen as a collection of specialized intelligences or modules, each suited for a specific purpose. The study seeks to answer the questions raised by this new theory such as How many modules are there and how do they connect? , How can one account for human creativity and imagination? and How could such a mind have evolved? . It argues that only archaeology can provide the long-term perspective necessary to understand the origins of the modern mind. It shows how the world of our ancestors has shaped the modern mind and offers a challenging explanation of what it means to be human.