Traditional reliance on chemical analysis to understand the direction and extent of treatment in a bioremediation process has been found to be inadequate. Whereas the goal of bioremediation is toxicity reduction, few direct, reliable measures of this process are as yet available. Ather area of intense discussion is the assessment of market forces contributing to the acceptability of bioremediation. Finally, ather important component is a series of lectures and lively exchanges devoted to practical applications of different bioremediation techlogies. The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging techlogies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Each techlogy is explored for its utility and capability to provide desired treatment goals. Advantages and limitations of each techlogy are discussed. The concept of natural attenuation is also critically evaluated since in some cases where time to remediation is t a significant factor, it may be an alternative to active bioremediation operations.