2009 Reprint of the 1922 Edition. Professor Toynbee's specific narrative begins with the landing of Greek troops at Smyrna in May, 1919. His account is very full and detailed, and is based largely upon personal observation. Toynbee's principal conclusion is that the effect of Western diplomacy and of Western ideas, particularly the conception of nationality, upon the East has been disturbing. It was less so because the West had never fully intended r realized the consequences. Toynbee's particular concern, from the perspective of 1922, arose from the interposition of Greece at the point of contact between Turkey and Europe. Professor Toynbee builds up a detailed and deeply interesting account of the events and conditions affecting this problem.