Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) granted FDA, an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), authority to regulate tobacco products, including marketing and distribution to youth. The act established CTP, which implements the act by educating the public on the dangers of tobacco use; developing the science needed for tobacco regulation; and developing and enforcing regulations on the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. The act authorized FDA to assess and collect user fees from tobacco manufacturers and importers. This book examines how FDA spent tobacco user fees for key activities using its authorities granted in the act, and any challenges FDA encountered in using its authorities.