This volume unifies central parts of organization and management theory that have thus far been fragmented and unconnected. It integrates prior research on organizational types and transitions, and also spawns a number of incipient theories about organizational transformations. The book develops the framework of a symbolic ecomy in which organizations are viewed as fundamentally concerned with symbol-processing devices. A key tion is planning cultures - global mental representations of an organization, or collective frames of mind expressing different levels of strategic capacity. Organizational transitions are seen as movements on a buckled or warped field between seven different planning cultures, motivated by the need to ecomize on social energy . This field is shaped by various transforming factors, most tably uncertainty and pressure.