This new edition presents the cultural metaphor as a method for understanding the cultural mindsets of individual nations, clusters of nations, continents, and diversity in each nation. A cultural metaphor is any activity, phemen, or institution that members of a given culture consider important and with which they identify emotionally and/or cognitively, such as the Japanese garden and American football. This cultural metaphoric approach identifies three to eight unique or distinctive features of each cultural metaphor and then discusses 34 national cultures in terms of these features.
Martin J. Gannon (PhD, Columbia University) is Professor of International Management and Strategy, College of Business Administration, California State University, San Marcos (CSUSM). He is also Professor Emeritus, Smith School of Business, University of Maryland at College Park. At Maryland he held several administrative positions, including the Associate Deanship for Academic Affairs and the Founding Directorship of the Center for Global Business, and received the University's International Landmark Award. In 2014, Professor Gannon received the Outstanding Educator Award from the International Management Division of the Academy of Management. Professor Gannon has authored or co-authored nearly 100 articles and 13 books, some in multiple editions and translations. These include Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization (2008), Handbook of Cross Cultural Management (2001), Dynamics of Competitive Strategy (1992), Managing without Traditional Methods: International Innovations in Human Resource Management (1996) and Ethical Dimensions of International Management (1997). Professor Gannon has been the Senior Research Fulbright Professor at the Center for the Study of Work and Higher Education in Germany and the John F. Kennedy/Fulbright Professor at Thammasat University in Bangkok, and has served as a visiting professor at several Asian and European universities. He has also been a consultant to many companies, government agencies, and labor unions. Professor Gannon has lived and worked in more than 30 nations as a visiting professor, consultant, and trainer. For additional information on Professor Gannon, please visit his homepage at California State University, San Marcos: faculty.csusm.edu/mgannon Rajnandini Pillai (PhD, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1994) is Professor of Management at the College of Business, California State University, San Marcos (CSUSM). She is also Executive Director and founding member of the Center for Leadership Innovation and Mentorship Building (CLIMB) at the university. Her areas of research interest are leadership and cross-cultural management. She has published her work on charismatic and transformational leadership, leadership and voting behavior, and cross-cultural differences in organizational justice in some of the leading journals in her field such as The Leadership Quarterly, Journal of Management, and the Journal of International Business Studies. She has also co-edited two books, Teaching Leadership: Innovative Approaches for the 21st Century (2003) and Follower Perspectives on Leadership (2007). She serves on the editorial boards of The Leadership Quarterly and Group and Organization Management. Rajnandini Pillai has held mid-level management positions in the banking industry in India, consulted with organizations in the United States on leadership effectiveness, and conducted workshops on leadership and global issues. She has received awards for excellence in teaching and research, including the College of Business Outstanding Professor Award, the Western Academy of Management Ascendant Scholar Award, the CSUSM President's Award for Scholarship and Creative Activity, and the Harry E. Brakebill Distinguished Professor Award.