The last fifteen years have produced major advances in the mathematical theory of wavelet transforms and their applications to science and engineering. In an effort to inform researchers in mathematics, physics, statistics, computer science, and engineering and to stimulate furtherresearch, an NSF-CBMS Research Conference on Wavelet Analysis was organized at the University of Central Florida in May 1998. Many distinguished mathematicians and scientists from allover the world participated in the conference and provided a digest of recent developments, open questions, and unsolved problems in this rapidly growing and important field. As a follow-up project, this mograph was developed from manuscripts sub- mitted by rewned mathematicians and scientists who have made important contributions to the subject of wavelets, wavelet transforms, and time-frequency signal analysis. This publication brings together current developments in the theory and applications of wavelet transforms and in the field of time-frequency signal analysis that are likely to determine fruitful directions for future advanced study and research.