Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) was an American sociologist, author, poet, and lecturer whose influential work and urthodox lifestyle made her an icon for future generations of feminists. Much of her work criticized common perceptions of the role of women in marriage and society, and advocated educational, financial, and cultural equality for women. In addition to The Yellow Wall-Paper, which is studied by most students in the United States today, Gilman is well kwn for her 1898 book, Women and Ecomics. In this book, Gilman employs the theory of Social Darwinism as a basis for promoting reform. She points out that human beings are the only species in which the female is dependent on the male for survival, and that men have claimed credit for all human progress. This book made Gilman an instant success, bringing her the independence which she desired, and was later translated into seven languages and adopted as a textbook.