Population gemics is a recently emerged discipline, which aims at understanding how evolutionary processes influence genetic variation across gemes. Today, in the era of cheaper next-generation sequencing, it is longer as daunting to obtain whole geme data for any species of interest and population gemics is w conceivable in a wide range of fields, from medicine and pharmacology to ecology and evolutionary biology. However, because of the lack of reference geme and of eugh a priori data on the polymorphism, population gemics analyses of populations will still involve higher constraints for researchers working on n-model organisms, as regards the choice of the getyping/sequencing technique or that of the analysis methods. Therefore, Data Production and Analysis in Population Gemics purposely puts emphasis on protocols and methods that are applicable to species where gemic resources are still scarce. It is divided into three convenient sections, each one tackling one of the main challenges facing scientists setting up a population gemics study. The first section helps devising a sampling and/or experimental design suitable to address the biological question of interest. The second section addresses how to implement the best getyping or sequencing method to obtain the required data given the time and cost constraints as well as the other genetic resources already available, Finally, the last section is about making the most of the (generally huge) dataset produced by using appropriate analysis methods in order to reach a biologically relevant conclusion. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, advice on methodology and implementation, and tes on troubleshooting and avoiding kwn pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Data Production and Analysis in Population Gemics serves a wide readership by providing guidelines to help choose and implement the best experimental or analytical strategy for a given purpose.