This book aims to present an information-theoretical approach to thermodynamics and its generalisations. On the one hand, it generalises the concept of 'information thermodynamics' to that of 'information dynamics' in order to stress applications outside thermal phemena. On the other hand, it is a synthesis of the dynamics of state change and the theory of complexity, which provide a common framework to treat both physical and nphysical systems together. Both classical and quantum systems are discussed, and two appendices are included to explain principal definitions and some important aspects of the theory of Hilbert spaces and operator algebras. The concept of higher-order temperatures is explained and applied to biological and linguistic systems. The theory of open systems is presented in a new, much more general form. Audience: This volume is intended mainly for theoretical and mathematical physicists, but also for mathematicians, experimental physicists, physical chemists, theoretical biologists, communication engineers, and all those interested in entropy and open systems. It can also be recommended as a supplementary text.